Morphology & Syntax

09/05/2011 06:17

Language is a system for the communication of meaning through sounds.

Linguistic is the scientific study of language.

Language as system consist of three subsystem: Semantic, Sysnantic, Phonological

Language is a system of symbols. Why?
Each language has different pronunciation.
e.g: Could you tell me where the station is?
/kud yuw tel miy hwer ……./

Phonology is the study the smallest units of speech sounds that make a difference in meaning.

Morphology is the study of meaningful form or the smallest meaningful units of language.
There are two basic divisions in morphology :
(1) lexical or derivational morphology; studies word formation which produces new words such as nation — national.
(2) inflectional morphology; studies word formation related to grammatical affixes: prular, past tense and possession.

A word is a unit which is a constituent at the phrase level and above.

A morphene is the smallest unit of language that has meaning. For example Cats has to morphemes- cat (singular) and cats (plural). Uneventful has three morphemes. event, eventful, and uneventful. Each morpheme changes the meaning of the word.

Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful elements in a language.
There are two types of morpheme. They are free morpheme and bound morpheme.
Free morpheme is the one that can stand alone such as: cat, dog, horse, car, bike, bus etc.
Bound morpheme is the one that cannot stand alone such as in affixation namely prefix, infix and suffix. Prefixes occur before the base, e.g. (un)tidy, pre(school), (dis)like. Suffixes occur in the middle of the base, e.g. kind(ness), angri(ly), judge(ment), teach(er).

Inflection is modification of words in accordance with their forms.
English verbs consists of five forms, namely: infinitive (see), the third singular present (sees), past form (saw), past participle (seen) and gerund or present participle (seeing).
eg.: I love a peaceful life. “love” is a verb.
Love is blue. “love” is a noun.
Do you like love potion? “love” is an adjective.

Analysis of inflections.
We must determine (1) the patterns of selection, (2) the arrangement of inflected elements and (3) any modifications involved.
Selection means parts of speech. These are classified by word patterns of inflection.
e.g: The verb “live” (regular) and “give” (irregular).
“live” is inflected by means of suffix: lives [z], lived [d], living [iŋ] while “give” is inflected by means of patterns underlying forms, namely irregular verbs. give, gives, gave, given, giving.

Derivation is the process of adding derivational morphemes, which create a new word from existing words, sometimes by simply changing grammatical category (for example, changing a noun to a verb).

A dissimilar thing that can be exchanged for the thing of which the value is to be determined

Similar things that can be compared with the thing of which the value is to be determined

PARADIGMATIC AND SYNTAGMATIC. Contrasting terms in (structural) LINGUISTICS. Every item of language has a paradigmatic relationship with every other item which can be substituted for it (such as cat with dog), and a syntagmatic relationship with items which occur within the same construction (for example, in The cat sat on the mat, cat with the and sat on the mat). The relationships are like axes, as shown in the accompanying diagram.

The cat sat on the mat.
paradigmatic His dog slept under that table.
Our parrot perched in its cage.

Paradigmatic contrasts at the level of sounds allow one to identify the phonemes (minimal distinctive sound units) of a language: for example, bat, fat, mat contrast with one another on the basis of a single sound, as do bat, bet, bit, and bat, bap, ban. Stylistically, rhyme is due to the paradigmatic substitution of sounds at the beginning of syllables or words, as in: ‘Tyger! Tyger! burning bright / In the forests of the night.’

On the lexical level, paradigmatic contrasts indicate which words are likely to belong to the same word class (part of speech): cat, dog, parrot in the diagram are all nouns, sat, slept, perched are all verbs. Syntagmatic relations between words enable one to build up a picture of co-occurrence restrictions within SYNTAX, for example, the verbs hit, kick have to be followed by a noun (Paul hit the wall, not *Paul hit), but sleep, doze do not normally do so (Peter slept, not *Peter slept the bed). On the semantic level, paradigmatic substitutions allow items from a semantic set to be grouped together, for example Angela came on Tuesday (Wednesday, Thursday, etc.), while syntagmatic associations indicate compatible combinations: rotten apple, the duck quacked, rather than *curdled apple, *the duck squeaked.

a. Verb : swim : swims, swam, swum, swimming
b. Noun : chair : chairman, head : headmaster; cloud : cloudy
c. Pronoun : I : me/my/mine; we : our/ours/us
d. Adjective : happy : happily/happiness/happier/happiest
d. Adverb
e. Preposition
f. Conjunction
g. Interjection

Syntax: The study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences in a language.

Syntactics: Science which studies the elements of sentence structure and interrelationshios with the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequences.

Affixation is the process of attaching an inflection or, more generally, a bound morpheme to a word. This can occur at the beginning or end and occasionally in the middle of a word form.
Affixes are classified into three types:
(1) Prefixes: Those which are added to the beginning of root or stem such as “unhappy”
(2) Infixes: Those which occur within a root/stem. They are not commonly found in European languages.
(3) Suffixes: Those which follow a root/stem such as “happiness”.

4 level of linguistic analysis:
• Sound level
• Morphological level
• Syntactic level
• Semantic level

The morphological level of analysis is concerned with meaningful units. These units are called morphemes. It is defined as the smallest meaningful units of grammatical description, since they cannot by analyzed any further at this level. Morphology studies the internal structure of words, that is the ways in which morphemes function as constituents of word structure. For example, the word unconditionally may be said to consist of four morphemes: un – condition – al – ly. Condition is a free morpheme, since it can occur on its own. The other three morphemes are bound, since they must always co-occur with free morphemes. English words consist of one or more free morphemes (book, bookcase, bookshop, bookworm) or of combination of free and bound morphemes (kindness, unkind, kindly, unkindly).

Having established the structure of words at the morphological level, we can go on to examine how words can be put together to form larger grammatical units. Words combine to form larger units called phrases, which, in turn to combine to form sentences. This is the business of syntax to establish the set of rules that specify which combinations of words constitute grammatical strings and which do not.

In short, morpheme is the minimal unit of grammatical description in the sense that it cannot be segmented any further at the grammatical level of analysis. While Syntax is a part of linguistic, this studies rearrangement and interrelationship of word, phrases, clauses, and sentences. In other words, it is the study of how combine words become a larger unit.

Words : The smallest units or the smallest free form.
A group of phoneme/letter that has meaning, e.g. car, book, pen
Phoneme : The smallest meaningful unit, e.g. book /bUk/ 3 phoneme
Phrase : Group of words that doesn’t has S and P but has meaning.
A group of word that has meaning
Clause : Consist of S and V but can not stand alone because it is part of sentence
and has meaning, e.g. what she knows
Sentence : The largest grammatical unit consisting phrase, clause, sentence that used
to express a statement, question and comment.
Consist of S and V, can stand alone and has meaning and sometimes
consist more than one clause, e.g. I wrote a letter yesterday

There are five signals of syntactic structure:

1. word-order—the linear of time sequence in which word appear in an utterance, or the positions of words relative to each other in time.
2. prosody—musical pattern of stress, pitch and juncture in which the words an utterance are spoken, or combination or patterns of pitch, stress and juncture.
3. function word—words with little or no lexical meaning which are used in combining other words into larger structures.
Words largely divide of lexical meaning that used to indicate various functional relationship among the lexical words of an utterance (doesn’t have meaning in grammatical but in lexical), e.g. Does she go there?

There are nine types of function word:
• noun determiner; all, twice, one, third, a, an, this, that, these, those, etc.
• auxiliaries; verb, is, am, are, has, have, do, does, did, will
• qualifiers/ compare; fairly, merely, very, pretty, quite, etc.
• preposition; in, on, at, of, over, etc
• conjunction/ coordinator; and, but, nor…or, not only…but also, etc
• interrogator; who, which, what, etc
• includes; when, like, that, whatever, etc
• sentence linkers; consequently, accordingly, however, even though, as a result
• miscellaneous/ interjection

There are two kinds of meaning:
a) lexical meaning : the meaning of morphemes and words considered in isolation (dictionary meaning).
b) Grammatical/structural meaning: the meaning of the way words are combined in larger structures (sentence)
* the word “am” does not has meaning if stand alone, but has meaning if we combine with other words or we put in a sentence.
e.g. I am being interviewed

4. inflection—suffixes, always final, which adapt words to fit varying of structural positions without changing their lexical meaning or part of speech.
Morphemic changes without changing the lexical meaning, e.g. – ed, plural (s/es)
• work — worked (change in the form of word to show a past tense)
• book — books ( to show a plural)

5. derivational contrast—derivational prefixes and suffixes which change words from one part of speech to another. In short, addition of the prefixes or suffixes that change the world class.
e.g. manage—management—manager

morphophoneme – (linguistics) the phonemes (or strings of phonemes) that constitute the various allomorphs of a morpheme.
Eg. imperfect = in + perfect
Irregular = in + regular

linguistics – the scientific study of language
allomorph – a variant phonological representation of a morpheme; “the final sounds of `bets’ and `beds’ and `horses’ and `oxen’ are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme”

Assimilation is a common phonological process by which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like that of another segment in a word (or at a word boundary). A common example of assimilation would be “don’t be silly” where the /n/ and /t/ in “don’t” are assimilated to /m/ and /p/ by the following /b/, where said naturally in many accents and discourse styles (“dombe silly”).

Progressive assimilation; changes with reference to a preceding segment are traditionally.
Regresive assimilation; if a sound changes with reference to a following segment.

Dissimilation; opposite of assimilation; is the change of one or more sounds to be articulated like another sound or is a phenomenom whereby similar consonant or vowel sound in a word become less similar.
e.g. turtle tur-tur

Branches of phonetic study:
1. Articulation phonetics: The study of the way speech sounds are made by vocal organ.
2. Acoustic phonetics: The study of speech sounds related to physical properties as transmitted between mouth and ear.
3. Auditory phonetics: The study of speech sounds based on the perceptual response of auditory nerve and brain: using physical apparatus such as devices for measuring airflow or for analyzing sound waves.

Stress: The use of significant intensity in speech.
e.g: naturally (naetserlly)
nat surely will come (naet serliy el kem)

Pitch: Intonation which gives contribution to meaning varieties of the sentence.

Timing: Juncture (the type of connection or pause we get between syllables or words)

Definition of sentence:
A sentence is sequence of selected syntactic items combined into a unit in accordance with certain patterns of arrangement, modification, and intonation in any given language.
A sentence is any string of morphemes ending with a final intonation pattern.
To provide the means for analyzing sentences or any other syntactic entities, two terms are used: construction and constituent. A construction is any complete group of words or morphemes. A constituent is a morphemes, a combination of morphemes, or a construction that is a component of a construction.

Basic elements of the sentence.
Subject + Predicate.

The subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing, or idea that is doing or being something. You can find the subject of a sentence if you can find the verb. Ask the question, "Who or what ‘verbs’ or ‘verbed’?" and the answer to that question is the subject.

A predicate is the completer of a sentence. The subject names the "do-er" or "be-er“ of the sentence; the predicate does the rest of the work. A simple predicate consists of only a verb, verb string, or compound verb:
- The glacier melted.
- The glacier has been melting.
- The glacier melted, broke apart, and slipped into the sea.

Coordination (conjoining) is one of the basic syntactic devices from which parallel entities are arrangeed side by side.
e.g: John takes cream. John takes sugar.
The two sentences above can be coordinated into : John takes cream and sugar.

Subordination (embedding) is combining two sentences into one sentence by using English relatives and subordinating conjuction.
e.g: John, who likes sugar.

Endocentric construction is one in which the primary constituent(s) are comparable to the complete construction.
e.g: Good old John. John and Mary

Exocentric construction is one in which the primary constituent(s) do not function like the complete construction.
e.g: in the house

Substitution (pro-form), stand for the central entities of basic patterns.
As substitutes for nouns: John likes cream. He likes cream. He likes it.
Substitutes may also be used for verbs: He likes coffee and she does too.
Modals are also widely used as substitutes: He’ll take coffee and so will she.

Entities used as substitutes generally fall into the set of items known as function words. These convey relationships among the content words, such as nouns and verbs, in a language. Examples of function words are auxiliaries, conjunctions, determiners, interjections, postpositions, prepositions and relatives.

Concord, or congruence, is the agreement in form of one word with an other. For example, ‘this’ must be modified to ‘these’ before plurals, as in ‘this tie’, ‘these ties’.
Government is the determination of one from by another. For example, ‘her’ rather than ‘she’ is required in ‘He saw her’ and ‘to her’.

The two basic favorite sentence types of English, verb sentence and BE sentence.
Verb sentence:
- They came. N1 V
- They became friends. N1 V N(1)
- They saw her. N1 V N2
- They gave her candy. N1 V N2 N3
- They elected her mayor. N1 V N2 N(2)

BE sentence:
- It is cold. N BE Adj
- It is here. N BE Adv
- It is Jack. N BE N

Intransitive verbs that do not require a following noun or adjective.
Transitive verbs are subdivided here into two large groups, one of which requires only an object, the other an object plus a noun or a pronoun and those that do. Some grammars call verbs like ‘become’ and ‘seem’ linking verbs.

Overt selection classes, the subject performs an action affecting the object, whereas in ‘I saw her’, there is no such effect.
Covert selection classes, the relationship expressed by verbs like ‘stop’ is hidden in ‘They stopped the car’, with the former object as subject: ‘The car stopped’.

Subclasses of English function words are often specified according to gross sets: those used with verbs as auxiliaries and those used nouns as determiners and prepostions.
e.g: ‘His car broke down’ and ‘His broke down’.

Subclasses of English noun.
The use of determiners, in turn, permits subclassification of nouns. Proper nouns may be distinguished from common nouns by the impossibility of placing determiners before proper nouns. For example, ‘Jack’ is a proper noun in ‘Jack dealt the cards’ but not in ‘He dealt a jack to each of the players’.

Some eggs –> count nouns
Some sugar –> mass nouns
They moved last week –> ‘move’ is intranstive verb
They moved the last house on the block –> ‘move’ is transitive

Expansion of the verb phrase:
They may give her candy.
They have given her candy.
They are giving her candy.
They may have given her candy.
They may be giving her candy.
They have been giving her candy.
They may have been giving her candy.

Expansion of the noun phrase:
their old neighbors
their fine old neighbors
their fine old retired neighbors
their many fine old retired neighbors
all their fine old retired neighbors

Alterations of simple sentences:
1. Question
- with change of intonation, for example, ‘He came?’
- with wh-words, for example, ‘Who came?’
- with auxiliaries or do, for example, ‘May he come?’ or ‘Did he come?’
2. Negative
They didn’t come.
3. Emphatics
They came
4. Requests
Will you come?
5. Passives
She was seen by him

Compound sentences; the clauses so modified are referred to as coordinate and subordinate clauses, and the resulting sentences.
Example: They came and saw her.

Minor sentence types.
Completive; consist of subject plus auxiliary. For example: (Did they come?) They did.
Elliptical; consist of any single sentence component. For example: (How did he come?) Slowly.
Aphoristic; consist of parallel comparison. For example: First come, first served.